“The Vet Says……” – Antifreeze Poisoning in Cats and Dogs

As this glorious summer comes to an end, no doubt many of you will be making things are ready for winter. Salt for the path, carrot for the snowman’s nose and of course antifreeze for the car. But beware, antifreeze can be harmful to pets so care needs to be taken. Ethylene glycol is a constituent of antifreeze and is toxic to cats causing acute kidney failure. It is sweet tasting and attracts cats, dogs & children for this very reason.

It can also be found in some cosmetics, some plants, radiator coolant, decorative snow globes & air conditioning coolant. Ethylene Glycol  quickly breaks down once ingested and although the kidneys will deal with some of it, the remainder forms Calcium Oxalate Crystals that block the kidneys causing necrosis. It is the metabolic processes within a cat that form the by-products that are highly toxic to cats. As little as a teaspoon can be fatal in cats or two tablespoons for dogs. Ingestion of even the smallest amount should be treated very seriously and requires immediate veterinary treatment. Cats are about four times as sensitive to this poison as dogs and their smaller size adds to the risk they face.

Symptoms

Within 30 minutes to 12 hours of ingestion,  a cat will show the following….

  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive urination
  • Will appear intoxicated, may stumble &  appear dizzy.
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Not eating
  • Excitability

After a time, these symptoms may pass, but your pet is not out of danger as the next stage will set in without treatment. The second stage is usually 12-24 hours after ingestion and symptoms may include

  • Rapid breathing & heart rate
  • High blood pressure
  • Lethargy

The third stage symptoms include

  • Kidney failure
  • Vomiting
  • Depression
  • Coma

Treatment

It is important that if you can identify the source of the poison, you take it with you or take details of the product including chemical composition. Your vet can do various tests including blood & urine to evaluate toxicity and the extent of damage to the kidneys. The sooner the cat gets treatment, the better it’s prognosis. Early treatment may include inducing vomiting to try and reduce the absorption of the antifreeze.  Further treatment will be to support the kidneys  and sometimes chemicals can be administered to reduce the effect of antifreeze on the kidneys. As well as damage to the kidneys this poison can also affect the central nervous system and it is not possible to reverse this damage.

Prevention

As always, prevention is better than cure. The following simple steps can be taken to reduce the risk…

  • Keep antifreeze sealed and away from pets.
  • If you change the antifreeze on your car, make sure all spills are thoroughly washed away.
  • Do not let your pet drink from puddles.
  • Do not let your pet into your garage or any others.
  • Check your car regularly for leaks.

Tri Paw Pals support group: an introduction to amputation

There are numerous reasons why owners may be presented with the difficult decision of having to amputate their dog’s or cat’s leg. Such cases may include:

  • Bone cancer particularly osteosarcoma
  • Other types of cancer affecting the bones/joints/soft tissues of the leg that can not be managed in any other
  •  Trauma of the limb that makes repair impossible. This may include severe bone fractures (although with advances in orthopaedic surgery these are fairly rare now), severe soft tissue injuries resulting in irreversible damage to muscles and/or blood supply and nerve damage resulting in the limb becoming totally non functional
  • Intractably painful limbs due to other conditions such as infections and severe arthritis

In dogs, the commonest reason amputation is carried out is for treatment of osteosarcoma. In cats, it is due to severe limb trauma usually following a road traffic accident. In this article, I will concentrate on dogs. Osteosarcoma is a very aggressive form of bone cancer that presents with severe progressive lameness. Sometimes, affected dogs present with a fractured leg that occurs because the bone has been weakened by the cancer and just doing something normal like getting up can result in the bone breaking. This is called a pathological fracture. Larger breeds of dog are most commonly affected with osteosarcoma with Greyhounds, Rottweilers, Great Danes and Irish Wolfhounds particularly commonly affected. The average survival time for a dog with osteosarcoma is 6 months with surgery alone and 12 months with amputation and follow up chemotherapy. You do not cure dogs with osteosarcoma by amputation because by the time the cancer becomes apparent in the bone, it has already spread elsewhere in the body. The big advantage of amputation is that it is the most effective way of eliminating the pain associated with osteosarcoma. Amputation and follow up chemotherapy is still the most common treatment option that is undertaken. More advanced limb salvage procedures are carried out in some specialist centres and now there are pioneering procedures using prosthetic limbs in dogs. It is unclear whether these offer any real advantages over amputation and each case needs to be considered on an individual basis. The decision to amputate a dog’s leg who is suffering from bone cancer poses an owner a whole host of dilemmas:

  • Do I put my dog through such a big operation? Will they cope on three legs?
  • Is it reasonable to put my dog through such a big operation when survival time can be relatively very short?
  • What are the risks of the operation?
  • How long will it take my dog to be back to normal after surgery?

Most of these questions are difficult to answer and the decisions made by owners depend on the advice offered by their veterinary team and their personal beliefs. However there are some generalities that we can consider:

  • Although a major operation, amputation of limbs in dogs is a relatively simple surgical procedure. There are risks of serious haemorrhage but a suitably experienced surgeon should be able to avoid this. The general anaesthetic risks depend on each individual case but provided there is no pre-existing diseases such as heart and lung disease, these risks are usually fairly low
  • I have never seen a dog not cope on three legs that I have operated on. An eminent orthopaedic surgeon once said that dogs are born with 3 legs and a spare! Each case must be judged on an individual basis and if there are serious pre-existing diseases affected the other legs then amputation may not be suitable. But provided the other 3 legs are sound, dogs will cope. I have even amputated a limb from significantly obese dogs. They have required intensive post op care, rehabilitation and dietary control but have all done well.
  • Dogs do not have the emotional issues that human amputees endure. I can only imagine how incredibly hard it must be for people to deal with loosing a limb but for dogs this does not exist.

Despite all the above, it is a difficult and emotional decision for owners to make. We hope therefore that this support group can help.

Cherrydown Vets launches new support groups

Cherrydown Vets launches new support groups: Tri Paw Pals and Animal CanCare

If you’ve seen our logo, it reads “Cherrydown Vets Ltd  –  to us they’re one of the family.” That’s not just a nice tag, but how we see your pets and the way we think they should be cared for by us. We believe support and care beyond just the clinical needs of your pet are extremely important. Just as with people, serious illness in pets can cause great distress and worry in a family. Not only is it important to get the right treatment physically it can be an enormous benefit emotionally to be able to talk to others who have been, or are going through the same experiences. So that’s why we put our heads together and have come up with two new Facebook pages to start to bring together people whose pets are going through the same difficult times. Animal CanCare is our support group for people whose pets are suffering from cancer and Tri Paw Pals is our animal amputee support group. In the coming weeks and months we will start to populate the pages with useful advice, interesting articles and stories of animals we see and treat. But that’s only part of what these Facebook Pages are for. The main reason to have them is to allow you, the owners to tell us and others, about your experiences and the things that you found helped, or made coping and making decisions that bit easier. We will answer your questions where we can, or put you in contact with people we think might help. While these pages have been set up by Cherrydown Vets we have not set this up just for our clients. We want to invite people from all over the country to join in, to help fellow pet owners and form a community that helps one another with guidance and input from us and other experts we think can help you. For those of you that are joining us here at the beginning of this journey, things aren’t going to be immediate as it will take time to build and gather momentum. But bear with us, join in and tell your friends about these pages so that word spreads and soon a few will become many and the help, support & ideas will grow.

So there you have it, now it’s partly up to you to help make these pages what you want them to be. So go on, write a comment, tell us if you like us, post photos of your pets and tell us about your experiences and how we can make your journey, and that of your pet, just a little bit easier. We look forward to hearing from you. If you want to contact us or know more about Cherrydown Vets then visit our social media sites: Our web page – http://www.cherrydownvets.co.uk where, amongst other things, you can see videos of us going about our business and realise why we love what we do. Our Facebook Page – www.facebook.com/CherrydownVets where we interact with our friends on a daily basis offering a mix of informative blogs, topical information, details of local events and a few things to bring a smile to your day. Our Twitter Page (@CherrydownVets)  – http://twitter.com/CherrydownVets where we keep you up to date with what we’re up to and who we’re following.